Mass-sensing, multianalyte microarray immunoassay with imaging detection
Miniaturization of ligand binding assays may reduce costs by decreasing reagent consumption, but it is less apparent that miniaturized assays can simultaneously exceed the sensitivity of macroscopic techniques by analyte "harvesting" to exploit the total analyte mass available in a sample. Capture reagents (avidin or antibodies) immobilized in 200 um diameter zones are shown to substantially deplete analyte from a liquid sample during a 1-3-h incubation, and the assays that result sense the total analyte mass in a sample rather than its concentration. Detection of as few as 10^5 molecules of analyte per zone is possible by fluorescence imaging in situ on the solid phase using a near-infrared dye label. Single and multianalyte mass-sensing sandwich array assays of the IgG subclasses show the sensitivity and specificity of ELISA methods but use less than 1/100 the capture antibody required by the 96-well plate format.